If you want to know about Babylon Mesopotamia, you need to go back in time. Mesopotamia, nestled between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, was the seat of the one of the earliest known civilizations of the world.
The region not only developed, but passed on its rich culture to successive civilizations in the surrounding areas as well. Excavations carried out by archaeologists over the ages have revealed a wealth of information.
The region also witnessed regular warfare for wresting control of the city states that flourished during successive empires. After conquering Babylon, the Persians divided Mesopotamia into Babylon where politics and administration was concentrated and in a place called Ashur.
The growth of the Helentistic period began soon after Selucus conquered Babylon leading to both the cultural and economic progress of Mesopotamia.
Rise and fall and rise:
Babylon is regarded by scholars of ancient history as the most important city state which prospered around 3 BC. The famous King Hammurabi was instrumental in making Babylon the capital of his kingdom.
The people soon began revering Marduk, who was identified with Bel and regarded as a patron god as well. He was considered a patron god and in ancient Mesopotamian culture, god fixed the edicts and rules which human beings were supposed to follow.
The Assyrians under Sennacherib destroyed Babylon in 689 BC. The famous city was again rebuilt to add luxury and color reminiscent of the days of Neuchadnezzar, when it was at its prime. Among the Seven Wonders of the World were the Hanging Gardens, the walls of the Babylonian palace and the Ishtar gate which was decorated with glazed bricks.
Babylon in Mesopotamia attained significance as a place for sensual living after it was captured by the Greeks in 538 BC under Cyrus the great. By 275 BC, the residents were transported to Selucia which replaced Babylon as a center for commerce and trade.
Hints of Babylon were first found in the tablets dating back to the times of the Akkadian ruler Sargon in 23 BC. Many small kingdoms were formed after the Amorites wrested control and formed the first empire of Babylon.