Akkad of Mesopotamia
Food & Drink
Tigris River
Mesopotamia Timeline
Domestic Animals
Art & Crafts
Calendar Concept
Civilization History
Clothing / Dressing
Common Crops Produced
Farming / Agriculture
History in Brief
Homes / Houses
Inventions / Contribution
Marriage Institution
People & Society
Religion / Beliefs
Sports / Games
Cuneiform Writing
Decline Of Mesopotamia
Fertile Crescent
Mesopotamia Museum
Mesopotamia Wheels
Cylinder Seals
Mesopotamian History
Irrigation System
Social System
Sargon of Mesopotamia
Slavery in Mesopotamia
Invention of Wheel
Trade In Mesopotamia
Egypt Similarities
Babylon City State
Crops Taken
Popular Games Played
Mesopotamia Geography
Gilgamesh Poem
Houses in Mesopotamia
Images of Structures
Irrigation System
Jewellery Making
Jobs / Occupations
Laws in Mesopotamia
Persia Relation
Pottery making
Social Structure
New Articles

Ancient Mesopotamian Calendar

The people of Mesopotamia were fond of astronomy. They even knew that heliocentric model of planetary motion, where the Earth revolves on its axis, which in turn revolves around the Sun.

Mesopotamian Solar Calendar

The Mesopotamian solar calendar was divided into two season, 'summer' and 'winter'. The summer included the barley harvests in the second half of May. The financial year began at about two months after barley cutting. For other purposes, a year began before or at the harvest. However, in most of the areas, New Year began at the first visible lunar crescent after the vernal equinox.

calender in ancient mesopotamia

The idea of royal year was also popular. The king celebrated new agricultural year by offering first fruits to gods for their blessings. If an important event takes place in a year, the year was named after it.

Babylonian Calendar

Names of the months differed from city to city. The Assyrians also kept a commercial calendar which had 360 days with an intercalary month added every sixth year. But they adopted the Babylonian calendar by 1000 BC.


The rituals and festivals of each month is determined by many factors including the phase of the moon, the phase of the annual agricultural cycle, equinoxes and solstices, commemoration of historical events etc.

Ancient Mesopotamian Calendar

A month was divided into seven-day intervals by the Babylonians. Assyrians had five day or ten day week. It was in 21 century BC that the lunar estimate began to be popular. In the 18th century itself, the empire standardised the year by adopting the lunar calendar.

Lunar Calendar

The lunar calendar was approximately of 354 days and the solar calendar of 365 days. Therefore, there was an intercalated month. The Babylonian month names were Nisanu, Ayaru, Simanu, Du'uzu, Abu, Ululu, Tashritu, Arakhsamna, Kislimu, Tebetu, Shabatu, and Adaru.



Copyright 2017