Akkad of Mesopotamia

History of Akkad of Mesopotamia,Mesopotamian Akkad,Sargon,Enheduanna,Rimush,Manishtusu,Naram-Sin,Shar-kali-sharr

“the Subartu (mountainous tribes of) the upper country-in their turn attacked, but they submitted to his arms, and Sargon settled their habitations, and he smote them grievously”.
Babylonian Text


It was the Akkadians who established the first empire of Mesopotamia. The great king Sargon, popularly known as Sargon of Akkad was one of the greatest kings of the ancient times. The Akkadian empire was established in 2300 BC. The state of Akkad was the predecessor of the empires of Babylonian and Assyria. It was situated in the northern side of Mesopotamia.

Much is not known about Akkadian culture and history. However, Akkadians were Semitic people living on the Arabian Peninsula. By 2430 BC, they came in conflict with the Sumerian city states.


Sargon conquered the nearby city states and built an empire. It is the inscription of Enshakushanna of Uruk that Akkad first found mention. The Semitic language Akkadian was spoken in Akkad.

Under Sargon’s rule, Akkad was chosen as the capital of the empire. The earliest Akkadian names and words occur in written sources of the 27th century. The Akkadian language and literature began to grow tremendously.

The old Akkadian pattern of writing is known for its aesthetic value. Enheduanna who lived from 2285-2250 BC is famous as the first poet in history. Her known work includex hymns to the goddess Inanna, In-nin sa-gur-ra andthe Exaltation of Inanna.

It is said that the Akkadian empire contributed tremendously to Mesopotamian culture. Arts and sculpture reached perfection during this period. The first ruler of Akkad was Sargon, the founder.

Then came his son, Rimush, followed by Manishtusu, Naram-Sin, and Shar-kali-sharri. Naram-Sin, grandson of Sargon was addressed as the ‘god of Agade’. He possessed an army of 360,000 men.All these kings together reigned for a total period of 142 years.

The empire had a well built transport and postal system. By the end of the reign of Shar-kali-sharri, Akkadian empire began to collapse. There was an outright invasion by the Gutians and other reasons like falling rainfall responsible for the decline.