Ancient Egypt and Ancient Mesopotamia Similarities

Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt similarities have fascinated historians down the ages as both civilizations were rich in culture and contributed much to the development and enrichment of the civilizations in the east and the west.


Both civilizations grew around famous rivers to nurture and bring out the best in human beings striving to wrestle with the unknown. While Mesopotamia nestled between the Tigris and the Euphrates, Egyptian civilization prospered along the Nile.

Writing developed with pictograms used primarily for maintenance of accounts and record keeping during ancient times. The school system was unique in both civilizations and helped in the creation of scribes where boys were trained from a very young age.


Trade prospered as well as agriculture and new methods of farming were specially developed in Mesopotamia to combat the seasonal floods from the Tigris and the Euphrates.

Both were advanced societies:

Both societies were prosperous and commercially advanced where wealthy aristocracies dominated. The artisan and the merchant classes were also well developed, which is an aspect of Egypt and Mesopotamia similarities. The development in trade, commerce and agriculture led to an overall cultural progress unparalleled anywhere in the ancient world.

Trading was a common feature in both the societies and commercial interaction with the outside world was more extensive in both places.

Among the greatest Mesopotamia and Egypt similarities is the imprint both civilizations left for future emulation. They not only helped in leaving an important heritage in the region, but the culture and civilization permeated surrounding societies as well. Triggered by the path shown by Mesopotamian and Egyptian scholars and pioneers in technology, a number of civilizations took root by 1000 BC.

There were lots of social similarities and the differences, if any, were not visible. Till the Sumerian rule in Mesopotamia, women power was predominant in both the societies.

At a later stage after the exit of the Sumerians, the differences in treatment of women became more vivid. Egyptians and Mesopotamians till that time revered women. They held important positions especially among the upper classes as marriage forged alliances which helped in the preservation of the empire.