Ancient Mesopotamian Achievements

The Mesopotamians had contributed a lot in the field of Mathematics, Astronomy, Writing and Literature. They have developed some very important concepts in the field of mathematics which have proved to be very useful in doing certain mathematical calculations.

The contribution of Mesopotamia in the field of mathematics can be seen in the form of the sexagesimal system developed by them. It is a system which was used for the purpose of calculation of time and angles.


This system is still widely used because of the multiple divisibility of the number 60. Another contribution of Mesopotamia is in the form of zodiac and its signs. Another being the Greek days of 12″double-hours”.

The contribution of Mesopotamia in the field of literature had been remarkable. The ‘cuneiform literature’ had been the most appreciated contribution of Mesopotamia in the field of literature.


However, ‘cuneiform literature’ had not been resurrected to the extent it deserves. There were many reasons for it. The main reason was the inadequate knowledge of the languages and the insufficient acquaintance with the vocabulary.

There are remarkable contributions by Mesopotamia in the field of science as well. The science of Mesopotamia was characterized by endless, meticulous enumeration ordering into columns and series, with the ultimate ideal of including all things in the world but without the wish or ability to synthesize and reduce the material to a system.

Another contribution of Mesopotamia was in the field of Legal Theory which flourished to a very great extent during the Mesopotamian time. There were several collections of legal decisions, the so-called codes, amongst which the best known is ‘Code of Hammurabi’. These codes contained the concern of the ruler for the weak, the widow, the orphan etc.